Rhinosporidiosis: A Riddled Disease of Man and Animals

Rhinosporidium_microscopy

Rhinosporidiosis is a non-contagious, sporadic, chronic granulomatous infection of man and large domestic animals, characterised by the production of large polyps with high recurrence rate. Polyps occur mainly in nasal, ocular regions; cutaneous and disseminated forms are relatively rare. Spread of these organisms to other areas in an affected person may involve blood, lymph or autoinfection.

Rhinosporidiosis has been reported form more than 70 countries and mainly the reports are concentrated from Sri Lanka and Southern India. Surgical removal of the polyp will be the cure and in some cases dapsone has given some cure. From the day of inception of this disease there had been a controversy for causative agent of this condition among eukaryotic protozoan parasite or algae or fungi or prokaryotic blue green algae which finally confirmed as a fungi . Recent works by various researchers shows that R. seeberi belong to the class Mesomycetozoea.

Other mystery remains in its habitat and its inability to be cultured on laboratory media. Similarly, laboratory animal infection does not yield classical form of disease as it does in human and large animals. The pathogen is so mysterious that the mechanism behind evasion of immune mechanism is also not clear. Still various aspects of disease such as mode of transmission, mechanism of infection, biology of rhinosporidiosis, immunological response and laboratory culture techniques are unresolved mysteries due to paucity of documented data which demands more exploration. This review illustrates main features of rhinosporidiosis and systematic approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of this controversial pathogen (R. Tiwari et al. Full story here).

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